Light Science Summary 5: Light, Photon Effects on Plants and Animals (The wonders of nature)

All animals and plants, including humans, have biorhythms. Biorhythms can be optimized for spectrums such as the natural solar cycle from Morning to Evening.

 

1. Effect of photons on fish

According to the various wavelengths of photons, animals and plants may cause physiological reactions or stress. The wavelength of green light can be controlled for its influence in regulating immune systems, accelerating melatonin output of hormones and for alleviating stress in fish. By regulating the light wavelength, we can control the growth rate of cultured species and adopt various fish species and new techniques accordingly. A green light may generally stimulate growth of fish at low water temperature. Moreover, it is conceivable that a body growth of which is stimulated by green light and it augments food intake, which is intimately coupled with somatic growth.

On the contrary, if artificial lighting is not used well, the impact on fish is fatal. According to Barbara nightingale and Charles simenstad, University of Washington, studies in the Pacific Northwest report potential changes in fish migration behavior and the distribution of fishes in night-lighted areas. Such changes potentially increase mortality risks for fish. The potential changes in species abundance and dominance resulting from increased prey access under artificial lighting also warrant further exploration. Here, an artificial lighting is causing confusion in the fish ecosystem.

2. Effect of photons on plants

Plants also remember to bloom leaves and flowers in order to make the most of light, and the ratio of golden splitting, which is most comfortable for humans, also came from natural plants. Plants transform CO2 into sugar to fuel their life; literally, light is the source of life of plants. Thus plants leave out in the way plants get the most light at any given developmental stage (Fig.2), and when the light is not sufficient, they change even the locations, angles and shapes of leaves. Whereas, perilla plants were reported to produce only 6% of seeds when grown next to street lights. It is because the biological clock of plants was disturbed by the artificial light overnight.

3. Effect of photons on birds

Annual reports released by the American Medical Association would announce that nighttime artificial lighting, especially street lights, above 3000K can adversely affect humans and animals. Annual reports released by the American Medical Association would announce that nighttime artificial lighting, especially street lights, above 3000K can adversely affect humans and animals. So, migratory birds following stars move to the wrong place because they can't find the moonlight due to artificial light. Also, hundreds of birds collide frequently and die finally at night towers. Nocturnal owls need to be active at night, but the night is too bright to survive as a nocturnal species. (Fig.3)

4. Effect of photons on insects

According to a study published in Nature, an artificial light at night disrupts nocturnal pollination networks and has negative consequences for plant reproductive success. In fact, over the past two decades, artificial light production has increased by 70%, especially in inhabited areas. Nighttime artificial light is growing at an annual rate of 6% worldwide. "In the areas with high levels of light pollution, light-sensitive insects have already disappeared," Dr. Knob said.

5. Effect of photons on amphibians

Amphibians are highly sensitive to light and can perceive increases in illumination that are impossible for humans to detect. A rapid increase in illumination causes a temporary reduction in visual acuity, from which the recovery time may be minutes to hours. In this manner, a simple flash of headlights can arrest activity of a frog for hours. Frogs in an experimental enclosure ceased mating activity during night football games when lights from a nearby stadium increased sky glow. In general, all animals and plants, including humans, have biorhythms. The biorhythm caused by artificial light is disturbing not only the growth of copper and plants but also the physiology and reproductive activity. No one knows how the ecosystem disturbances caused by artificial lighting are further revealed, but the bottom line is that ecosystem disturbances can only occur constantly. It should not be forgotten that damage to the ecosystems affected by light pollution can cause various problems for humans. In order to make the most of the light, the golden split ratio that humans are most comfortable with, leaves and flowers according to the Pinabochi sequence (vol. 33), and it is indeed a wonder of nature that the golden divisions come out of this sequence.

Biologist A-Young Lee Ph.D
Biologist Jin-won Kim Ph.D
Biologist Jae-ho Lee Ph.D
Biologist Sang-wook Chung Ph.D
Physicist Sung-soo Kim Ph.D
Electronic and Information Engineering Sooyoung Moon Ph.D
Physics & MBA Chung H. Lee Adviser

Ref:
1. http://www.urbanwildlands.org/abstracts.html
2. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jez.497 3. Moore, M. V., S. J. Kohler, and M. S. Cheers. Artificial light at night in freshwater habitats and its potential ecological effects Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
4. Hailman, J. P., and J. G. Jaeger. A model of phototaxis and its evaluation with anuran populations
5. Nature 548(7666), 2017, Impact of artificial lighting on moths(Kenneth D. Frank)
6. https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%EA%B4%91%ED%95%A9%EC%84%B1

* Next week’s topic: photon and sight

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