Light Science Summary 7. Photon and Sight

The retinal cells in our eyes recognize photons, the energy of light from the outside.

1) Light(Photon) and Color

Retinal cells in our eyes recognize photons, the energy of light from the outside. In particular, cone cells recognize blue, green, and red, respectively, and send signals to our brain to distinguish form and colors.
On the other hand, Light (Photon) entering through the eyes can cause physiological reactions or stresses to plants and animals depending on the wavelength and intensity of the light. Especially, improper light can affect the physiological response of eyes, causing myopia, or, excessive blue light can cause direct damage to the eye due to its strong photon energy, which can cause serious eye disease.

2) Light(Photon) and Myopia

Based on the “Nature” Journal, the Australian National University Research Group’s research stated that sixty years ago only 10-20% of China's population was suffering from myopia. However, current myopia rates in major Asian countries are over 90%.

 When sunlight reaches the retina through the optic nerve, the neurotransmitter dopamine is secreted a lot in day time and less in night time. This phenomenon indicated that if people did not receive enough sunlight then not only their dopamine secretion rhythm will be disturbed but also cause the myopia.

 In other studies including the research by Professor Ian Morgan, myopia can be improved by exposure to sufficient sunlight. By aligning this factor, the Chinese government announced a `` Management and Action Plan to Prevent Myopia for Children and Adolescents,'' in 2018 by giving guide of using proper lighting as well as recommend the outdoor activities. As a result, the fundamental distinction between sunlight and artificial light is the spectrum of light.

1)Light and Myopia
2016 IAPB Vision Atlas report. IAPB(International Agency for Prevention of Blindness) 2017.12.6 The Science times 2018.11.14..CNN
PLoS One.2017.12(7):e0181772
PLoS One.2015:10(6):e0127863
Invest Opthalmal Vis Sci.2015:3103-3112

3) Photon and Eye damage 

 The retinal cells in the eye perceive the photons coming from the outside, which is more sensitive to blue light wavelengths and, when they are overexposed, it can accelerate macular degeneration (AMD) and degrade macular aging and weaken the function in the center of the retina. This can reduce eyes’ vision and, in extreme cases, the eyes can becom blind. Dr. Ajith Karunarathne of the University of Toledo says that blue light can accelerate macular degeneration (AMD), and strong blue light can increase stress on the cells and eventually damage the cells. 

 It is very important for the modern people spending most of their time indoor to live their lives under the environment of light’s wavelengths and its amount of flux corresponding to the natural sun light. This is the essential factor for the human being to maintain a natural biorhythm and a healthy body.

2) Photon and eye damage
TV chosun journal

Biologist A-Young Lee Ph.D
Biologist Jin-won Kim Ph.D
Biologist Jae-ho Lee Ph.D
Biologist Sang-wook Chung Ph.D
Physicist Sung-soo Kim Ph.D
Electronic and Information Engineering Sooyoung Moon Ph.D
Physics & MBA Chung H. Lee Adviser

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